57% of the total volume of all CPP can be attributed to herbicides (100% is the sum of herbicides, fungicides, and insecticides). According to the FAO, 1.2 million tons of herbicides were used in 2018, which is twice as much as in 1990. Almost two-thirds of all herbicides are used in the United States (68%), 15% in Europe, 11% in Asia, 4% in Oceania and 2% in Africa.
In 2018, 530 thousand tons of fungicides were used, which is 25% of the total volume of all CPP (main types). This segment is growing (+ 35% compared to 1990), but not as intensively as the segment of herbicides. Leaders in the use of fungicides are Europe (37%) and the United States (35%), while 22% of fungicides were used in the Asia, Africa – 5%, Oceania – 1%.
The level of insecticide use in the world is stable, and the volumes almost did not change and comprise around 400 thousand tons. The share of insecticides in the global use of CPP is 18% (in 2018). Within the segment of insecticides: 45% were used in the United States, 29% in Asia, 16% in Europe, 6% in Africa and 4% in Oceania. However, as a result of a stable volume of used insecticides, there is a change in the product quality, since the agronomists choose other active substances.
Change of CPP toxicity in the world means reduction of the negative impact on vertebrates, but increased toxicity for invertebrates and pollinating insects.
Back in 1998, 95 countries participated in an international agreement restricting trade of organochlorine pesticides (DDT), organophosphates and other most dangerous substances.
Source: The Law of Ukraine, document 995_a35: "Rotterdam Convention on the Prior Informed Consent Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade"
The data of multi-year study have showed that over the past 25 years, the toxicity of CPP to vertebrates (fish, mammals, and birds) has decreased due to replacing organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides with pyrethroids and neonicotinoids, however, these products are more harmful to invertebrates, both aquatic and terrestrial, as well as pollinating insects. Scientists are concerned that pyrethroids and neonicotinoids get accumulated in the environment and may be one of the main causes of arthropod biodiversity loss, as well as a decrease in numbers of pollinating insects, leading to significant reductions in pollinated areas and yield loss.
Source: Ralph Schultz, University of Koblenz-Landau, Germany. Ralf Schulz et al. / Science, 2021